United States — NASA
Apollo 11: Crewed Lunar Landing

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: PLSS Condensate Container
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: Jettisoned at end of mission.
End Date: N/A
Function: Container for condensate from the Portable Life Support System.
Image Source: NASA

Description

Portable life support system feedwater-collection bag. The PLSS feedwater-collection bag is used by the crewmen in the LM to determine the amount of feedwater remaining in the PLSS after EVA. This procedure permits measurement of the crews’ metabolic rate during EVA. The PLSS feedwater-collection device is constructed of an inner and an outer bag. The inner bag is made of rubberized cloth, and the outer bag, which is used as a restraining cover, is made of Nomex. A vehicle recharge connector, which is attached to the open end of the bags, mates directly with the PLSS to receive the PLSS feedwater. A water-fill connector is attached by a pushbutton indicator lanyard to the vehicle recharge connector to vent the bag when it is not in use. To determine the amount of water consumption, the PLSS feedwater- collection bag is weighed after termination of lunar-surface operation. The scale used to accomplish the weighing is a standard spring-loaded scale that can be adjusted to obtain the weights of objects on the lunar surface. When not in use, this scale is stored in a sized pocket on the restraint layer of the bag. The bag and scale were used successfully on the Apollo 11 mission.

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: S-Band Antenna
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: 21 July 1969, [time to be inserted]
End Date: N/A
Function: Communication link to Earth.
Image Source: NASA

Description

Launch, in-space operation, and re-entry, of any spacecraft require tightly coordinated actions on the ground and on the spacecraft. Information must be passed both ways, and use radio links to accomplish it all. Voice communications connect the people involved: covering the moment to moment status of the flight, experiences and decision making that are part of manned spaceflight.

Data communications carry data from spacecraft elctrical, guidance, life support, and other systems back to earth, while comand and control data are sent to the spacecraft for the purpose of updating spacecraft systems with essential data, configuring the spacecraft apropriately for its phase of flight, and accomplishing various tasks that are impractical or unsafe for astronauts to attempt. Note that the communications infrastructure evolved from what was used for aircraft flight testing into a whole new and much more complex system to support missions in low earth orbit, and then extended range missions to the moon.

The Mercury and Gemini programs, used a growing kludge of radio systems on VHF and UHF for voice and telemetry. Tracking was accomplished by use of a C band transponder, similar in function to a basic aircraft mode A transponder, which was interrogated by a ground based radar. There were too many different radios, cables, antennas, power supplies, and other equipment in the old system for trips to the moon. Reliability, range, and bandwidth had to be increased; weight, power consumption, and size had to be reduced. Apollo also would include something entirely new in the space program: live television from the astronauts. Therefore, the new space telecommunications system needed to be highly innovative to meet the needs of the ambitious Apollo program.

It was decided that the new Unified S Band System, built by the Collins Radio Company, would incorporate multiple signals onto one uplink from the ground and one downlink per spacecraft. The technnology grew out of the coherent doppler and the pseudo-random range tracking system which was being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Subcarriers for voice and telemetry were added to the tracking signal in a manner that would allow each to function without interference from the others. It was an elegant and very capable solution for the communications challenges posed by manned flight to lunar distances. At any time during a mission, one tracking station in view of the spacecraft, with one high gain antenna could provide tracking, command, and communications services. Using the huge parabolic antennas of the Deep Space Network and smaller antennas of the Apollo / Crewed Space Flight Network, constant high quality contact would be maintained with Apollo spacecraft.

Read more:
https://www.ab9il.net/aviation/apollo-s-band.html

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Cable for S-Band Antenna
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: 21 July 1969, [time to be inserted]
End Date: N/A
Function: Communication link to Earth.
Image Source: NASA

Description

Launch, in-space operation, and re-entry, of any spacecraft require tightly coordinated actions on the ground and on the spacecraft. Information must be passed both ways, and use radio links to accomplish it all.

Voice communications connect the people involved: covering the moment to moment status of the flight, experiences and decision making that are part of manned spaceflight.

Data communications carry data from spacecraft elctrical, guidance, life support, and other systems back to earth, while comand and control data are sent to the spacecraft for the purpose of updating spacecraft systems with essential data, configuring the spacecraft apropriately for its phase of flight, and accomplishing various tasks that are impractical or unsafe for astronauts to attempt.

Note that the communications infrastructure evolved from what was used for aircraft flight testing into a whole new and much more complex system to support missions in low earth orbit, and then extended range missions to the moon.

The Mercury and Gemini programs, used a growing kludge of radio systems on VHF and UHF for voice and telemetry. Tracking was accomplished by use of a C band transponder, similar in function to a basic aircraft mode A transponder, which was interrogated by a ground based radar. There were too many different radios, cables, antennas, power supplies, and other equipment in the old system for trips to the moon. Reliability, range, and bandwidth had to be increased; weight, power consumption, and size had to be reduced.

Apollo also would include something entirely new in the space program: live television from the astronauts. Therefore, the new space telecommunications system needed to be highly innovative to meet the needs of the ambitious Apollo program. It was decided that the new Unified S Band System, built by the Collins Radio Company, would incorporate multiple signals onto one uplink from the ground and one downlink per spacecraft. The technnology grew out of the coherent doppler and the pseudo-random range tracking system which was being developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Subcarriers for voice and telemetry were added to the tracking signal in a manner that would allow each to function without interference from the others. It was an elegant and very capable solution for the communications challenges posed by manned flight to lunar distances. At any time during a mission, one tracking station in view of the spacecraft, with one high gain antenna could provide tracking, command, and communications services. Using the huge parabolic antennas of the Deep Space Network and smaller antennas of the Apollo / Crewed Space Flight Network, constant high quality contact would be maintained with Apollo spacecraft.

Read more:
https://www.ab9il.net/aviation/apollo-s-band.html

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Lunar Equipment Transfer Bag
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: Jettisoned at end of mission.
End Date: N/A
Function: Bags like this were used to store and carry lunar equipment on the Moon. Equipment included hammers, tongs, adapters, and tethers.
Image Source: NASA

Description

Information needed.

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Pallet assembly #1
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: Jettisoned at end of mission.
End Date: N/A
Function: Information needed.
Image Source: NASA

Description

Information needed.

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Central Station
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: 21 July 1969, [time to be inserted]
End Date: N/A
Function: Monitor lunar seismic activity.
Image Source: NASA

Description

The Central Station is part of the Passive Seismic Experiment Package. It is composed of the data subsystem, helical antenna, power conditioning unit, experiment electronics and the dust detector.

Read more:
https://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/ALSEP/pdf/31111000672939.pdf

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Pallet Assembly #2
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: Jettisoned at end of mission.
End Date: N/A
Function: Information needed.
Image Source: NASA

Description

Information needed.

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Primary structure assembly
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: Jettisoned at end of mission.
End Date: N/A
Function: Information needed.
Image Source: NASA

Description

Information needed.

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Hammer
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: 21 July 1969, [time to be inserted]
End Date: N/A
Function: Used to chip samples and drive core tubes into the lunar soil.
Image Source: NASA

Description

This is a lighter weight lunar hammer designed to chip a sample of rock off a larger rock or to drive core tubes into the lunar soil. When attached to an extension handle, the hammer could also be used to dig surface furrows. Hammers of this style were used on Apollo 11 and 12.

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Large Lunar Sample Scoop
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: 21 July 1969, [time to be inserted]
End Date: N/A
Function: Used to collect soil samples.
Image Sources: NASA and Air and Space Museum Smithsonian Institute.

Description

The head of the scoop was rigidly mounted to a shaft, which could be attached to an extension handle. A rotating motion was used with this model of scoop to prevent soil from flying out of the pan. Although the primary purpose of Apollo 11 was to perform a crewed lunar landing and return, subordinate objectives were also included, such as survey, photography, and soil sampling.

Of the three potential soil sample objectives—contingency, bulk, and documented—the large box scoop was a required tool for the latter two: the bulk sample required at least 10 kilograms of unsorted surface soil and selected rock chunks, while the documented sample involved a detailed and thorough documentation of the individual samples and collection area. The box scoop, in addition to the lunar tongs, served as the main instruments for large-scale soil sampling.

Object on or Related to Site

Object Name: Extension Handle
Cospar: N/A
Norad: N/A
Location: Precise location unknown or undisclosed.
Launch Date: 16 July 1969, 13:32:00 UT
Landing Date: 20 July 1969, 20:17:40 UT
Deployment: 21 July 1969, [time to be inserted]
End Date: N/A
Function: Increase the utility of the tools.
Image Source: NASA

Description

Extension handles were designed to be compatible with a variety of lunar tools, such as the hammer, scoop, and rake. Two types of extension handles were employed during the Apollo era; a shorter version (23.75 in) was flown on Apollo 11 and 12, and a longer one (35.5 in) was used on subsequent missions.

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Apollo 12: Crewed Lunar Landing
The primary mission objectives of the second crewed lunar landing included an extensive series of lunar exploration tasks by the lunar module, or LM, crew, as well as the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package, or ALSEP, which was to be left on the moon's surface to gather
Apollo 10: Crewed Lunar Orbit
The Apollo 10 mission encompassed all aspects of an actual crewed lunar landing, except the landing. It was the first to operate around the Moon. Objectives included a scheduled eight-hour lunar orbit of the separated lunar module, or LM, and descent to about nine miles off the Moon's surface before
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